Tuesday, May 29, 2007

Computer Port list

What is Computer port ?

An interface on a computer to which you can connect a device. Personal computers have various types of ports. Internally, there are several ports for connecting disk drives, display screens, and keyboards.

Externally, personal computers have ports for connecting modems, printers, mice, and other peripheral devices.

Almost all personal computers come with a serial RS-232C port or RS-422 port for connecting a modem or mouse and a parallel port for connecting a printer.


On PCs, the parallel port is a Centronics interface that uses a 25-pin connector. SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) ports support higher transmission speeds than do conventional ports and enable you to attach up to seven devices to the same port.

In TCP/IP and UDP networks, an endpoint to a logical connection. The port number identifies what type of port it is.

For Network administrator must know about the computer Port, to identify network attack and network function purposed.

Below is a general computer port list and the service port name:

Service Name

Port Number

Windows Services


Browsing
DHCP Lease
DHCP Manager
Directory Replication
DNS Administration
DNS Resolution
Event Viewer
File Sharing
Logon Sequence
NetLogon
Pass Through Validation
Performance Monitor
PPTP
Printing
Registry Editor
Server Manager
Trusts
User Manager
WinNT Diagnostics
WinNT Secure channel
Wins Replication
Wins Manager
Wins Registration
Direct Hosting of SMB over TCP/IP

UDP:137,138
UDP:67,68
TCP:135
UDP:138 TCP:139
TCP:135
UDP:53
TCP:139
TCP:139
UDP:137,138 TCP:139
UDP:138
UDP:137,138 TCP:139
TCP:139
TCP:1723 IP Protocol:47 (GRE)
UDP:137,138 TCP:139
TCP:139
TCP:139
UDP:137,138 TCP:139
TCP:139
TCP:139
UDP:137,138 TCP:139
TCP:42
TCP:135
TCP:137
TCP,UDP:445


Service Name

Port Number

Windows Load balancing System
(WLBS) & convoy for cluster Control



Convoy
WLBS

UDP:1717
UDP:2504

Microsoft Exchange

Client/Server Comm.
Exchange Administrator
IMAP
IMAP (SSL)
LDAP
LDAP (SSL)
MTA – X.400 over TCP/IP
POP3
POP3 (SSL)
RPC
SMTP
NNTP
NNTP (SSL)

TCP:135
TCP:135
TCP:143
TCP:993
TCP:389
TCP:636
TCP:102
TCP:110
TCP:995
TCP:135
TCP:25
TCP:119
TCP:563

Windows Terminal
Services

RDP Client (Microsoft)
ActiveX Client (TSAC)

ICA Client (Citrix)
Terminal Server

IPSec
ISAKMP
ESP
AH

Karberos
Karberos

RSVP
RSVP

TCP:3389
TCP:80,3389
TCP:1494
TCP:3389


UDP:500
IP Protocol 50
IP Protocol 51


TCP;UDP:88


IP Protocol:46






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Friday, May 25, 2007

Callback connection setting


The callback feature instructs your remote access server to disconnect, and then to call you back, after you dial in.

What does it mean and what for ?
Call the server from your home, then immediately hanging up by the server and then server dialing you back.
Required callback enhances network security by ensuring that only users from specific locations can access the server. By dropping the call, and then calling back a moment later to the preassigned callback number, most impersonators can be thwarted.


How it work ?



You call the server to the server via modem, once your server modem response, your connection automatically disconnected then your server call you back.

What for ?
For example, you need some file from your network server while you are at home or you are out of office, and this is reduce your phone charge and the others one, you can used internet trough your server network as a gateway.

How to Setting ?

Office/Server Setting:
step 1: Incoming Connection
Open Network Connection -> Create a new connection -> Next -> Select Set up an Advance Connection -> Next -> Accept incoming connection -> Select your modem device -> Do not allow virtual private connection -> select User Permission -> Next -> Finish.

step 2:
Set Remote Access Server (RAS)
Of course this part must configured by your administrator (if you want to know how to configure RAS, ask me). If you are as a user, put the modem to your computer as your network client, then do the only step1, and of course you have to let your computer on when you leave.

Your Home Computer setting:
step 1:
Open Network Connection -> Create a new connection -> Next -> Connect to the Internet -> Next -> Setup my connection manually -> Connect using a dial-up modem -> Type connection name -> Next -> Type the Phone Number -> Type User Name and password that you has been permission to connect as above (server configuration) -> Next -> Finish.

step 2:
Open Network Connections.
On the Advanced menu, click Dial-up Preferences.
On the Callback tab, do one of the following:
1. If you do not want to use callback, click No callback.

2. If you want to decide whether to use callback at the time you connect, click Ask me during dialing when the server offers.

3.If you want to use callback consistently, click Always call me back at the number(s) below, and select the modem or device on which you want to be called back.

4.If Phone number is blank for the device you have selected, click Edit, and then type the number.

5.If you want to remove a modem or device from the list of possible callback devices, click the modem or device, and then click Delete.

(see the final setting screen)


Now try connect to your computer office.
The surprised is,
1. The phone cost become to your office computer phone line. Your cost only on the first called.
2. If your office computer able to connect the internet via you server connection, you can used internet too from your home (must check your office computer firewall setting).

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Wednesday, May 23, 2007

Who will be joint next Alexa redirect train

Understand that we need rank for our blog. They say size doesn't matter, but rank does.

Let us play Alexa redirect train. See your Alexa rank before joint this, then We will dance for better Alexa rank and next week let's us see your Alexa rank next week.

This is the train:

~Start Copying Here~
Alexa Redirect Train by Carl Ocab

Rules:

1. Put anything you like above this list – Chit Chat, talkies, introduce what this is. Something like that ;-)

2. Start copying on the “~Start Copying Here~” and copy all the things listed without removing the links (Of course, the train would be no use without those links)

3. Move all the sites labeled “Newbies” to the list labeled “Oldies”

4. Add 5 sites that you want to include in the train and make their link like this: http://redirect.alexa.com/redirect?www.example.com then invite them to join the train.

5. Visit all the listed sites! (That’s not much work! Remember, if you plant good seeds they will also grow good) and look at your high Alexa ranking next week!

Newbies

Oldies

~End Copying Here~

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Saturday, May 19, 2007

BIOS signal error message

PC is not response once you turn on and got "Beep" sound. Don't panic.

How to construe the beep signal message from the PC.


AMI-BIOS:
1Beep:RAM damaged or unplugged correctly
6Beep:Gate A20 error - Keyboard unplugged or damaged
8Beep:Card Graphic damaged or unplugged correctly
11Beep:Checksum-Error, check CMOS Battery on motherboard

Award-BIOS:
1Long beep:RAM problem, plug RAM correctly
1Long beep + 2short beep: Graphic card problem
1Long beep + 3short beep: Keyboard problem (Version 4.5 above this signal means graphic card problem)
un-break beep: RAM or graphic card not found

Phoenix-BIOS:
1beep+1beep+4beep: BIOS damaged
1beep+2beep+1beep: Motherboard problem or damaged
1beep+3beep+1beep: RAM problem, check RAM position
3beep+1beep+1beep: Motherboard problem or damaged
3beep+3beep+4beep: Graphic card problem or unplugged.

Now you know the BIOS signal, keep it for easy to find and solved your PC problem.

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How to setting Thera for flexi

As the first Pocket PC to have integrated wireless communication capabilities, the Audiovox Thera 2032 (Toshiba 2032) opens the door to the next generation of feature-rich Pocket PCs. Manufactured by Toshiba and marketed by Audiovox, the compact and user-friendly Thera 2032, delivers the comprehensive functionality of Microsoft Windows Powered Pocket PC 2002 software. In addition, the Thera 2032 boasts a TFT screen with a touch-screen interface, as well as an on-screen keyboard and handwriting recognition.


Audiovox Thera (PDA-Phone) or Toshiba SP-2032



1. Start - Program- Watcher - Admin
2. Activation Wizard - Next - Manual Activation - Next - Next
3. Enter ESN
4. Enter Activation Code (Default: 000000) Next
5. Enter MIN (10 Digits, without 0), re-enter verification MIN, Next
6. Enter SID Flexi 10496
7. initialization process Service: wait for 3 minute, message "not in service" that’s okay.
8. Restart Terminal
9. Watcher - Tools Option - choose Select System: Home Only, Save

Advance Menu, two number for manage easier:
1. Watcher
2. Ctrl-D
3. exit from Advanced Menu, enter password: ##debug
4. modem configuration, enter password: nozirevpst
5. programming Code, enter password: ##nozirevpst or
979797 or 000000

Specification:
- Modes CDMA 800 / CDMA 1900
- Weight : 7.00 oz (198 g)
- Dimensions : 128 x 77 x 20 mm
- Stub Antenna
- Battery Life Talk: 3.00 hours (180 minutes)
- Standby: 100 hours (4.2 days)10 hours in PDA mode (without wireless activity)
- Battery Type LiIon
- Display Type: LCD (Color TFT/TFD)
- Colors: 65,536 (16-bit)
- Size: 240 x 320 pixels
- Reflective TFT LCD
- Platform / OS Windows Mobile for Pocket PCs, Memory 32 MB (built-in, shared flash memory)
- Alarm : Yes
- Calculator : Yes
- Calendar : Yes
- E-Mail Client : Yes
- Expansion Card Card Type : MultiMediaCard (MMC) / Secure Digital (SD)
- Games : Solitaire included / other Pocket PC games can be added
- Headset Jack (2.5 mm) located on top
- High-Speed Data Technology: 1xRTT
- Infrared (IR) Yes
- Integrated PDA OS: Microsoft Pocket PC 2002
Intel Strong ARM 206-MHz processor / 32 MB SDRAM / 32 MB Flash ROM
- Multiple Numbers per Name : Yes
- PC Sync ActiveSync 3.5
- Side Keys voice memo key
- Speaker Phone : Yes
- Text Messaging 2-Way : Yes
- To-Do List : Yes
- Touch Screen : Yes
- USB : Yes
- Vibrate : Yes
- Voice Memo : Yes
- Wireless Internet Browser Software: Pocket Internet Explorer

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Thursday, May 17, 2007

Network security - Firewall setting

You probably know that you need firewall security; in fact, you may even already have a firewall management program in place. But what exactly is firewall security, and what does firewall management entail?


The word firewall originally referred literally to a wall, which was constructed to halt the spread of a fire. In the world of computer firewall protection, a firewall refers to a network device which blocks certain kinds of network traffic, forming a barrier between a trusted and an untrusted network. It is analogous to a physical firewall in the sense that firewall security attempts to block the spread of computer attacks.


How Does Firewall Management Work?

A firewall management program can be configured one of two basic ways:

* A default-deny policy. The firewall administrator lists the allowed network services, and everything else is denied.
* A default-allow policy. The firewall administrator lists network services which are not allowed, and everything else is accepted.

A default-deny approach to firewall security is by far the more secure, but due to the difficulty in configuring and managing a network in that fashion, many networks instead use the default-allow approach. Let's assume for the moment that your firewall management program utilizes a default-deny policy, and you only have certain services enabled that you want people to be able to use from the Internet. For example, you have a web server which you want the general public to be able to access. What happens next depends on what kind of firewall security you have.

Below is a firewall security script, has been tested with Kerio Personal Firewall, may this rule can accepted to others firewall:

LSA Shell (lsass.exe) -> Ask - Permit - Ask - Ask
Windows NT Logon Application (winlogon.exe) -> Ask - Permit - Ask - Ask (log)
Userinit Logon Application (userinit.exe) -> Ask - Permit - Ask - Ask
Generic Host Process (svchost.exe) -> Ask - Permit - Ask - Ask (log)
Microsoft File & Printer Sharing -> Deny All (For LAN can be: Ask - Permit - Ask - Ask)
Any Other Application -> Deny - Ask - Deny - Ask (log & alert). invisible mode
Internet Browser Application -> ask - deny - deny - permit (log)
Kaspersky AntiVirus/ Kaspersky Internet Security -> ask - deny - deny - permit (log)
FTP Manager Application -> permit - permit - permit - permit (log & alert)
Yahoo Messenger -> deny - ask - deny - permit (log & alert)


Below is the rule script for Filter packet in Ferio Firewall or Tiny firewall and may can accepted to others firewall:

RULE 1
Description: ISP Domain Name Server Any App UDP
Protocol: UDP
Direction: Both
Local Port: Any
Local App.: Any
Remote Address Type: Single
Host address: IP number (Your ISP DNS server)
Port type: Single
Port number: 53
Action PERMIT

RULE 2
Description: Other DNS
Protocol: TCP and UDP
Direction: Both
Local Port: Any
Local App.: Any
Remote Address Type: Any
Port type: Single
Port number: 53
Action DENY

RULE 3
Description: Back Orifice Block (Logged)
Protocol: TCP and UDP
Direction: Incoming
Port type: List of Ports
Local App.: Any
List of Ports: 54320,54321,31337
Remote Address Type: Any
Port type: Any
Action DENY

RULE 4
Description: Netbus Block (Logged)
Protocol: TCP
Direction: Incoming
Port type: List of Ports
Local App.: Any
List of Ports: 12456,12345,12346,20034
Remote Address Type: Any
Port type: Any
Action DENY

RULE 5
Description: RPCSS (Logged)
Protocol: UDP
Direction: Incoming
Port type: Single port
Local App.: Any
Port number: 135
Remote Address Type: Any
Port type: Any
Action DENY

RULE 6
Description: Block Low Trojan Ports TCP UDP (Notify)
Protocol: TCP and UDP
Direction: Both
Port type: Port/range
Local App.: Any
First port number: 1
Last port number: 79
Remote Address Type: Any
Port type: Any
Action DENY

RULE 7
Description: Block High Trojan Ports TCP UDP (Notify)
Protocol: TCP and UDP
Direction: Both
Port type: Port/range
Local App.: Any
First port number: 5000
Last port number: 65535
Remote Address Type: Any
Port type: Any
Action DENY

RULE 8
Description: Block Outbound Unauthorized Apps TCP UDP
(Notify)
Protocol: TCP and UDP
Direction: Outgoing
Port type: Any
Local App.: Any
Remote Address Type: Any
Port type: Any
Action DENY
Nb: Kaspersky Antivirus 6 & Kaspersky Internet Security 6 usage, the remote port address choose Any)

RULE 9

Description: Block Inbound Unknown Apps TCP UDP
(Notify)
Protocol: TCP and UDP
Direction: Incoming
Port type: Any
Local App.: Any
Remote Address Type: Any
Port type: Any
Action DENY

RULE 10

Description: Block ICMP (Logged)
Protocol: ICMP
Direction: Both
ICMP Type: Echo Reply, Destination Unreachable, Source
Quench, Redirect,
Echo, Time Exceeded, Parameter Prob, Time Stamp, Time
StampReply, Info
Request, Info Reply, Address, Address Reply, Router
Advertisement, Router
Solicitation (ALL)
Remote Endpoint: Any
Action DENY

RULE 11

Description: In Block Ping and TraceRoute ICMP
(Notify)
Protocol: ICMP
Direction: Incoming
ICMP Type: Echo
Remote Endpoint: Any
Action DENY

RULE 12

Description: Out Block Ping and Trace Route ICMP
(Notify)
Protocol: ICMP
Direction: Outgoing
ICMP Type: Echo Reply, Destination Unreachable, Time
Exceeded
Remote Endpoint: Any
Action DENY

RULE 13

Description: Block Common Ports (Logged)
Protocol: TCP and UDP
Direction: Incoming
Port type: List of Ports
Local App.: Any
List of Ports:
113,79,21,80,443,8080,143,110,25,23,22,42,53,98
Remote Address Type: Any
Port type: Any
Action DENY

RULE 14
Description: Loopback
Protocol: TCP and UDP
Direction: Both
Local Port: Any
Local App.: Any
Remote Address Type: Single
Host address: 127.0.0.1
Port type: Any
Action PERMIT

RULE 15
Description: Block Inbound NetBIOS TCP UDP (Notify)
Protocol: TCP and UDP
Direction: Incoming
Port type: Port/Range
First Port: 137
Last Port: 139
Local App.: Any
Remote Address Type: Any
Port type: Any
Action DENY

RULE 16
Description: Block Outbound NetBIOS TCP UDP (Notify)
Protocol: TCP and UDP
Direction: Outgoing
Local Port: Any
Local App.: Any
Remote Address Type: Any
Port type: Port/Range
First Port: 137
Last Port: 139
Action DENY

RULE 17

Description: Bootpc (Logged)
Protocol: TCP and UDP
Direction: Incoming
Port type: Single port
Local App.: Any
Port number: 68
Remote Address Type: Any
Port type: Any
Action DENY

RULE 18

Description: Out Needed To Ping And TraceRoute Others
Protocol: ICMP
Direction: Outgoing
ICMP Type: Echo
Remote Endpoint: Any
Action PERMIT

RULE 19

Description: In Needed To Ping And TraceRoute Others
Protocol: ICMP
Direction: Incoming
ICMP Type: Echo Reply, Destination Unreachable, Time
Exceeded
Remote Endpoint: Any
Action PERMIT

RULE 20

Description: Internet Explorer-Web browsing (logged)
Protocol: TCP
Direction: Outgoing
Port type: Any
Local App.: Only selected below => iexplore.exe
Remote Address Type: Any
Port type: Any
List of ports: Any
Action PERMIT

RULE 21

Description: Outlook Express
Protocol: TCP
Direction: Outgoing
Port type: Any
Local App.: Only selected below => msimn.exe
Remote Address Type: Any
Port type: List of ports
List of ports: 25,110,119,143
Action PERMIT

RULE 22
Description: Yahoo Messenger
Protocol: TCP
Direction: Outgoing
Port Type: Any
Local App.: Only selected below => yahoomessenger.exe
Remote Address Type: Any
Port Type: List of ports
List of ports: 443,80,5050
Action PERMIT

RULE 23

Description: Yahoo Messenger
Protocol: UDP
Direction: Outgoing
Port Type: Any
Local App.: Only selected below => yahoomessenger.exe
Remote Address Type: Any
Port Type: single
List of ports: 3478
Action PERMIT

RULE 24
Description: Download Manager (logged)
Protocol: TCP
Direction: Outgoing
Port Type: Any
Local App.: Only selected below => (your download manager file)
Remote Address Type: Any
Port Type: List of ports
List of ports: 80,21
Action PERMIT


For filter packet setting on Local Area Network (LAN) can added with below rule script to allow NetBIOS access at specific port:

RULE 15a
Description: Trusted Inbound NetBIOS TCP UDP
Protocol: TCP and UDP
Direction: Incoming
Port type: Port/Range
First Port: 137
Last Port: 139
Local App.: Any
Remote Address Type: Trusted Address Group
Port type: Any
Action PERMIT

RULE 16b

Description: Trusted Outbound NetBIOS TCP UDP
Protocol: TCP and UDP
Direction: Outgoing
Local Port: Any
Local App.: Any
Remote Address Type: Trusted Address Group
Port type: Port/Range
First Port: 137
Last Port: 139
Action PERMIT

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My Visitor

This site started on Wednesday, May 2, 2007, This site is talking about the Computer Technology, networking, gadgets and others regarding to Technology information. (author: Jan Pieter Marbun)

This site is my experience as an IT worker at manufactured company. I dedicated this site to my friends, my staff and reader's who loved the Information Technology jobs.


Thanks to my visitor and my readers for stopped by this site, please do leave comment when you visit this site and i Appreciate for your review.

Below is my visitor and some of my comment about their site:

From MyBlogLog:
1.
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Member Since: 22nd Mar 2007

2.

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Member Since: 27th Apr 2007

3.

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Member Since: 24th Apr 2007

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Member Since: 15th Feb 2007

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I love their site, visit their site often. Need your response and comment to improved this site.

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Sunday, May 13, 2007

Testing Audio card Quality using RMAA

Microsoft suggested to installed audio component at PC for standard facility, In the middle of year 1990

Now sound Card is included in the PC motherboard as responded to Microsoft suggestion. Many type and kind of sound card used on the PC motherboard at the moment, but sometimes PC consumer is not care about the quality of the sound.


Four criteria to determine quality of sound card as below:

1. Resolution
2. Sampling rate
3. Signal/noise ratio (SNR)
4. Channel quantity

The explanation of sound criteria:

1. Resolution
This is a level of original sound compression.
Resolution is higher, compression level make distantly spaced and the sound quality more high. Sound resolution about 16 bit, but some already 20 – 24 bit.

2. Sampling rate:
Conversion analog to digital by second value. Sampling standard value is 44.1Khz, almost sound card work with 48Khz and at the moment thru 192Khz.

3. Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR)
Major sound and minor sound differential result by sound card. This parameter is important to build the sound clearly. The standard of SNR is 80db. High end chip audio, the value thru 100db

4. Channel quantity.
In the past the channel of sound is only two, left speaker and right speaker. Now, most sound chip produced 6 channel or 5.1 (left and right speaker, in front and behind plus 2 center speaker for bass and sound vocal)
The latest system is 7.1, this is 6(5.1) channel plus 2 speaker in the center.

To check our sound card on pc, physically we can see.
“Open the pc chasing, look at the sound card. The position of sound card is different for each motherboard, belong to the brand, check the manual book for sure and follow the above that informed sound card specification".

Quality tested

It is difficult to check quality of PC sound card, caused the result almost subjective disposed.

We can used RightMark Audio analyzer (RMAA) (download), to test with scientific method.



RMAA suite is designed for testing quality of analog and digital paths of any audio devices, be it a sound card, an MP3 player, a consumer CD/DVD player or an acoustic set. The results are obtained by playing and recording test signals passed through the tested audio path by means of frequency analysis algorithms. A more common mark is also provided for those unfamiliar with measured technical parameters.



How to used the program ? see my tested.

First, you must have supporting component (audio cable, to connect in-audio port and out-audio port)

The steps run is:

1. Connect in-audio port (red color) with out-audio port (green color) with the cable.

2. Run program RMAA 5.5, for easy choose wizard, this is simple running tested.

3. Choose test parameter, included playback/recording source, resolution and sampling rate.

4. Follow the step, the most important is set volume output and input to standardized supposed. Pre requirement input sound is about 1db.

5. To set input and output as pre requirement, set the volume at volume panel. Most The important set is “Wave out” and “Master” for playback and “Line in” for recording.

6. When the box indicator light is green, the test be run. Click start button, and wait the process.

7. Once the process finish, you can save the result with HTML format. In the result will shown the sound quality with any variable, included the explanation. Done.


Resolution canal type SNR (db) manufactured:

Analog Devices AD1885 16 bit 2 90
Analog Devices AD1985 18/20 bit 6 80-90
C-Media CMI9738 18 bit 4 72-82
C-Media CM19761 16/20 bit 6 90-95
Realtek ALC201A 18 bit 2 90
Realtek ALC650 18/20 bit 6 90
Realtek ALC655 16 bit 6 90
Realtek ALC658 18/20 bit 6 100
Realtek ALC850 16 bit 8 100
Realtek ALC880 24 bit 8 103
Via Envy24 24 bit 8 N/A

Sound dictionary:

1.Frequency response: is the measure of any system's response at the output to a signal of varying frequency (but constant amplitude) at its input. It is usually referred to in connection with electronic amplifiers, loudspeakers and similar systems. The frequency response is typically characterized by the magnitude of the system's response, measured in dB, and the phase, measured in radians, versus frequency

2.Noise Level: is the noise power of the longitudinal sound wave relative to a point of reference.
Note: Noise level is usually measured in dB for relative power or picowatts for absolute power

3.Dynamic Range: The ratio between the loudest and softest sounds

4.THD (Total Harmonic Distortion): The total harmonic distortion, or THD, of a signal is a measurement of the harmonic distortion present and is defined as the ratio of the sum of the powers of all harmonic components to the power of the fundamental.

5.IMD+Noise: Intermodulation Distorsion (IMD): Distortion in sound output as a failed in the sound card. Lowest is better

6.Stereo Crosstalk: physical defect happened when the sound should be in the right speaker, sound in the left speaker

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Saturday, May 12, 2007

ROUTER Configuration (part: III end)


Cisco Basic Router

The basic component of cisco is :

1. Processor

2. Memory :
* Read only Memory (ROM) : This is like a rom at the pc, got standard program inside the rom and will run on booting process.
* Flash memory : Keeping Operation system of the Cisco called IOS
* Random access memory (RAM) : Using for buffering, storage and others.
* Non volatile RAM (NVRAM) : Keeping configuration from IOS when Cisco boot.

3. Interface :
The interface of cisco router is :





interface using format name dan number on IOS, The number started from zero (0). But the assigning the number belong to the type of the router. For the Cisco Router the interface modul is fixed:



For the Cisco Router 7500 series with versatile Interface processor, where is the modul got ethernet slot, the assigning system more specific and be carefully. Ethernet4/0/1 means port number 2 at 1st adapter in slot 4.



Console Console

Cisco Router have console port at behind the hadware. This port console be function for direct communication access into the Cisco router. The standard console port using serial asynchronous EIA/TIA-232, the others name is RS-232.

For the console port connector belong to the router type. For the Low end to middle router, using RJ45 connector, for the other Routers class using DB25 connector.

Auxiliary port

Cisco router have auxiliary port. port auxiliary using standard serial connection same with console port using serial asynchronous EIA/TIA-232 direct connection to Cisco router. Port auxiliary also for alternative access to the cisco router via modem, Administrator can used this serial when the network path from the router got problem.

Configuration File
Two type IOS configuration:
1. Existing configuration from the RAM
2. Startup configuration under NVRAM

We can change the configuration even the IOS active or running. The changes effected directly, but don't forget must save to NVRAM as startup once we changes the configure under running system.

Configure Cisco Router under PC

To configure Cisco Router from PC, need software communication called Emulation software terminal. This software function is sended the command into Cisco router. This software is has been installed included your Windows system.



Next step you have to setup the emulation software setting.

9600 baud
8 data bits
No parity
1 stop bit
No flow control

You can also connect to the router using telnet, but you must set the router IP first.

Router command mode:
This is some command of Cisco.



Started to setup new cisco:

To start configuration of Cisco, we must go under configure command.
The step to configure using the emulation software connected with console port of Cisco router is:

When the router boot up, Generally will be shown and asked you to confirm. Answer with : No

Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog [yes] : no
.
.
router>


Router prompt default is router> called user EXEC mode. Mode router>

router> We can changes display like dos command.

Router>
1600>
1700>


Under User EXEC mode can see all the command with type ?

router> ?


To let you know the syntax type:

Router> ?
Router> show ?
Router>show conf?


Access the mode must know the to enter the configure command:

1700> enable
password: ******
router #


For configure :

Router# configure terminal
Router (config) #

Once you changes the configure, save the configuration into NVRAM:

Router# copy running-config startup-config
Building configuration . . .


Save result:

[OK]
router#


The next step for configuration is:
• Global parameter configuration
• Security Configuration
• Fast ethernet interface configuration
• Serial interface configuration
• Dynamic routing configuration
• Command-line access to the router

Global parameter configuration:

To start router configuration, we must set configure with – enable :

Router> enable
Router #


Step to configure global parameter router :



Security configuration setting,



INTERFACE FAST ETHERNET configuration

See the router prompt . . . has been changes with above



Serial INTERFACE setting



Dynamic routing parameter setting



COMMAND-LINE access configuration



To save all configuration :

1700# writ3e memory

To check configuration status:

stc# show interface ser0
Serial0 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is PowerQUICC Serial
Description: leased line to headquarters
Interface is unnumbered. Using address of FastEthernet0 (192.168.20.1)
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 1544 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255
Encapsulation PPP, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec)
LCP Closed
.
.
.


make sure serial and protocol line is up.

We do the same setting in LTX side. The different is only on the router IP, we assign LTX IP : 192.168.10.1
Assign the ip for each modem before Router check with your provider.

LTX access internet must route to STC network, because direct access into Internet from STC network.

This is only basic to connect between different network, for security firewall must set into the router.


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Wednesday, May 9, 2007

ROUTER Configuration (part: II)


Static and Dynamic Routers

For routing between routers to work efficiently in an internetwork, routers must have knowledge of other network IDs or be configured with a default route. On large internetwork, the routing tables must be maintained so that the traffic always travels along optimal paths. How the routing tables are maintained defines the distinction between static and dynamic routing.


Static Routing

A router with manually configured routing tables is known as a static router. A network administrator, with knowledge of the internetwork topology, manually builds and updates the routing table, programming all routes in the routing table. Static routers can work well for small internetworks but do not scale well to large or dynamically changing internetworks due to their manual administration.

Static routers are not fault tolerant. The lifetime of a manually configured static route is infinite and, therefore, static routers do not sense and recover from downed routers or downed links.





A good example of a static router is a multihomed computer running Windows 2000 (a computer with multiple network interface cards). Creating a static IP router with Windows 2000 is as simple as installing multiple network interface cards, configuring TCP/IP, and enabling IP routing.

Dynamic Routing

A router with dynamically configured routing tables is known as a dynamic router. Dynamic routing consists of routing tables that are built and maintained automatically through an ongoing communication between routers. This communication is facilitated by a routing protocol, a series of periodic or on-demand messages containing routing information that is exchanged between routers. Except for their initial configuration, dynamic routers require little ongoing maintenance, and therefore can scale to larger internetworks.

Dynamic routing is fault tolerant. Dynamic routes learned from other routers have a finite lifetime. If a router or link goes down, the routers sense the change in the internetwork topology through the expiration of the lifetime of the learned route in the routing table. This change can then be propagated to other routers so that all the routers on the internetwork become aware of the new internetwork topology.

The ability to scale and recover from internetwork faults makes dynamic routing the better choice for medium, large, and very large internetworks.

A good example of a dynamic router is a computer with Windows 2000 Server and the Routing and Remote Access Service running the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocols for IP and RIP for IPX.

TCP/IP Interior Routing Protocols (RIP, OSPF, GGP, HELLO, IGRP, EIGRP)

Modern TCP/IP routing architecture groups routers into autonomous systems (ASes) that are independently controlled by different organizations and companies. The routing protocols used to facilitate the exchange of routing information between routers within an AS are called interior routing protocols (or historically, interior gateway protocols). Since most network administrators are responsible for routers within a particular organization, these are the routing protocols you are most likely to deal with unless you become a major Internet big-shot.

One of the benefits of autonomous systems architecture is that the details of what happens within an AS are hidden from the rest of the internetwork. This means that there is no need for universal agreement on a single "language" for an internet as is the case for exterior routing protocols. As a network administrator for an AS, you are free to choose whatever interior routing protocol best suits your networks. The result of this is that there is no agreement on the use of a single TCP/IP interior routing protocol. There are several common ones in use today, though as is usually the case, some are more popular than others.

TCP/IP Routing Information Protocol (RIP, RIP-2 and RIPng):

The most popular of the TCP/IP interior routing protocols is the Routing Information Protocol (RIP). The simplicity of the name matches the simplicity of the protocol—RIP is one of the easiest to configure and least resource-demanding of all the routing protocols. Its popularity is due both to this simplicity and its long history. In fact, support for RIP has been built into operating systems for as long as TCP/IP itself has existed.

In this section I describe the characteristics and operation of the TCP/IP Routing Information Protocol (RIP). There are three versions of RIP: RIP versions 1 and 2 for IP version 4 and RIPng (next generation) for IP version 6. The basic operation of the protocol is mostly the same for all three versions, but there are also some notable differences between them, especially in terms of the format of messages sent.

For this reason, I have divided my description of RIP into two subsections. In the first, I describe the fundamental attributes of RIP and its operation in general terms for all three versions. In the second, I take a closer look at each version, showing the message format used for each and discussing version-specific features as well.

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF):

Interior routing protocols using a distance-vector routing algorithm, such as the Routing Information Protocol (RIP), have a long history and work well in a small group of routers. However, they also have some serious limitations in both scalability and performance that makes them poorly-suited to larger autonomous systems or those with specific performance issues. Many organizations that start out using RIP quickly found that its restrictions and issues made it less than ideal.

To solve this problem, a new routing protocol was developed in the late 1980s that uses the more capable (and more complex) link-state or shortest path first routing algorithm. This protocol is called Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). It fixes many of the issues with RIP and allows routes to be selected dynamically based on the current state of the network, not just a static picture of how routers are connected. It also includes numerous advanced features, including support for a hierarchical topology and automatic load sharing amongst routes. On the downside, it is a complicated protocol, which means it is often not used unless it is really needed. This makes it the complement of RIP and is the reason they both have a place in the spectrum of TCP/IP routing protocols.

Gateway-to-Gateway Protocol (GGP):

GGP is a MILNET protocol specifying how core routers (gateways) should exchange reachability and routing information. GGP uses a distributed shortest-path algorithm. The Gateway-to-Gateway Protocol is obsolete.

HELLO:

HELLO protocol is an early version of routing protocol for TCP/IP network using a distance-vector algorithm. HELLO does not use hop count as a metric. Instead, it attempts to select the best route by assessing network delays and choosing the path with the shortest delay. HELLO protocols also contain routing information in the form of a set of destinations that the sending router is able to reach and a metric for each. The HELLO protocol was developed in the early 1980s and documented in RFC 891. The name “HELLO” is capitalized and it should not be confused with the hello process used by a few protocols.

IGRP: Interior Gateway Routing Protocol:

The Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a routing protocol to provide routing within an autonomous system (AS). In the mid-1980s, the most popular interior routing protocol was the Routing Information Protocol (RIP). Although RIP was quite useful for routing within small- to moderate-sized, relatively homogeneous internetworks, its limits were being pushed by network growth. The popularity of Cisco routers and the robustness of IGRP encouraged many organizations with large internetworks to replace RIP with IGRP.

EIGRP: Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol:

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is an enhanced version of IGRP. IGRP is Cisco's Interior Gateway Routing Protocol used in TCP/IP and OSI internets. It is regarded as an interior gateway protocol (IGP) but has also been used extensively as an exterior gateway protocol for inter-domain routing.

ROUTER Concept:

Before we know more about how to configure Cisco Router, we have to know the basic rule of routing concept, how to assigned IP number, subnetting, netmasking and others related to the routing concept.

Example:

Host A : 192.168.1.9 (C network class subnet : 192.168.1.xxx)
Host B : 192.168.1.10 (C network class subnet : 192.168.1.xxx)
Host C : 192.168.5.8 (C network class subnet : 192.168.5.xxx)
Host D : 192.168.6.5 (C network class subnet : 192.168.6.xxx)

A Host able to communicate with B Host (see the subnet)

A Host to C Host or A Host to D Host cannot communicate (see the subnet)

B Host to C Host or B Host to D Host cannot communicate (see the subnet)

The question:

How to connect between A host and C Host ?

Answer:

We can connect between different subnet Host with ROUTER.

How to run new Router to connect between different host ? (see my case)

Case :
We have two factory with different area and of course got network each factory. My Boss need to connect between factory, let's say Factory Stc and factory Ltx. Stc Factory is a data central and as a gateway for internet connection, because no internet connection around location of
Ltx factory. (see the scheme picture)




What we have to do once get the router...?

to be continued....!



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Sunday, May 6, 2007

ROUTER Configuration (part: I)


The first question is, what’s Router ?

Router is A device that forwards data packets along networks. A router is connected to at least two networks, commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISP’s network. Routers are located at gateways, the places where two or more networks connect.





Routers use headers and forwarding tables to determine the best path for forwarding the packets, and they use protocols such as ICMP to communicate with each other and configure the best route between any two hosts.

So how to connect between above network?
This posting will explain the mechanism, router basic command and Interior Routing Protocol that we called IRP.

I wrote this based on my tested and implemented at my office using Cisco Router 805 Series since 2002 until now and so far is working well.
TCP/IP Concept: what is tcp/ip ?

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the basic communication language or protocol of the Internet. It canbe used as a communications protocol also in a private network (either an intranet or an extranet). When you are set up with direct access to the Internet, your computer is provided with a copy of the TCP/IP program just as every other computer that you may send messages to or get information from also has a copy of TCP/IP.

TCP/IP is a two-layer program. The higher layer, Transmission Control Protocol, manages the assembling of a message or file into smaller packets that are transmitted over the Internet and received by a TCP layer that reassembles the packets into the original message. The lower layer, Internet Protocol, handles the address part of each packet so that it gets to the right destination.
Each gateway computer on the network checks this address to see where to forward the message. Even though some packets from the same message are routed differently than others, they'll be reassembled at the destination.

TCP/IP uses the client/server model of communication in which a computer user requests and is provided a service (such as sending a Web page) by another computer (a server) in the network. TCP/IP communication is primarily point-to-point, meaning each communication is from one point (or host computer) in the network to another point or host computer. TCP/IP and the higher-level applications that use it are collectively said to be "stateless" because each client request is considered a new request unrelated to any previous one (unlike ordinary phone conversations that require a dedicated connection for the call duration). Being stateless frees network paths so that everyone can use them continuously. (Note that the TCP layer itself is not stateless as far as any one message is concerned. Its connection remains in place until all packets in a message have been received.)

Many Internet users are familiar with the even higher layer application protocols that use TCP/IP to get to the Internet. These include the World Wide Web's Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), the File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Telnet (Telnet) which lets you logon to remote computers, and the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). These and other protocols are often packaged together with TCP/IP as a "suite."

Personal computer users with an analog phone modem connection to the Internet usually get to the Internet through the Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) or the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP). These protocols encapsulate the IP packets so that they can be sent over the dial-up phone connection to an access provider's modem.

Protocols related to TCP/IP include the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), which is used instead of TCP for special purposes. Other protocols are used by network host computers for exchanging router information. These include the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP), the Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP), and the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).

Routing: what Is Routing?

Routing is a process of moving a packet of data from source to destination. Routing is usually performed by a dedicated device called a router. Routing is a key feature of the Internet because it enables messages to pass from one computer to another and eventually reach the target machine. Each intermediary computer performs routing by passing along the message to the next computer. Part of this process involves analyzing a routing table to determine the best path.

Routing is often confused with bridging, which performs a similar function. The principal difference between the two is that bridging occurs at a lower level and is therefore more of a hardware function whereas routing occurs at a higher level where the software component is more important. And because routing occurs at a higher level, it can perform more complex analysis to determine the optimal path for the packet. Want to know more about routing.

to be continued.....


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Original Template | by: Elque 2007 | Modify by : Jan Pieter Marbun (June 2007)